Conservation of wildlife populations: factoring in incremental disturbance

Stewart, Abbie, and Petr E. Komers

2017. Ecology and Evolution. Volume 7, Issue 12. June 2017. Pages 4266–4274. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3015

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Conservation decisions require quantification of disturbance rates and their relationships to predator–prey systems because ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance shift across disturbance gradients. This study examined wolf-moose dynamics in response to incremental anthropogenic disturbance in Alberta’s boreal forest and found  that moose and wolves show an inverse response to incremental landscape change and that there appears to be a shift in their response at about 43% of the landscape disturbed.

Full Description

Investigations of biophysical changes on earth caused by anthropogenic disturbance provide governments with tools to generate sustainable development policy. Canada currently experiences one of the fastest rates of boreal forest disturbance in the world. Plans to conserve the 330 000 km2 boreal forest in the province of Alberta exist but conservation targets and schedules must be aligned with rates of forest disturbance. We explore how disturbance rate, and the accuracy with which we detect it, may affect conservation success. We performed a change detection analysis from 1992 to 2008 using Landsat and SPOT satellite image data processing. Canada’s recovery strategy for boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) states that ≤35% of a caribou range can be either burned or within 500 m of a man-made feature for caribou to recover. Our analyses show that by 2008 78% of the boreal forest was disturbed and that, if the current rate continues, 100% would be disturbed by 2028. Alberta plans to set aside 22% for conservation in a region encompassing oil sands development to balance economic, environmental, and traditional indigenous land-use goals. Contrary to the federal caribou recovery strategy, provincial conservation plans do not consider wildfire a disturbance. Based on analyses used in the provincial plan, we apply a 250 m buffer around anthropogenic footprints. Landsat image analysis indicates that the yearly addition of disturbance is 714 km2 (0.8%). The higher resolution SPOT images show fine-scale disturbance indicating that actual disturbance was 1.28 times greater than detected by Landsat. If the SPOT image based disturbance rates continue, the 22% threshold may be exceeded within the next decade, up to 20 years earlier than indicated by Landsat-based analysis. Our results show that policies for sustainable development will likely fail if governments do not develop time frames that are grounded by accurate calculations of disturbance rates.

Canada’s federal database is inadequate for the assessment of environmental consequences of oil and gas pipeline failures

Chiara Belvederesi, Megan S. Thompson, Petr E. Komers

Environmental Reviews, Published on the web 25 May 2017, https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2017-0003

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This study assessed the quality and quantity of National Energy Board (NEB) pipeline failure data available in with a focus on environmental consequences and investigates differences between Canada and  the United States, in tracking accident data. The study found that the NEB database does not allow for statistically robust and system wide analysis of the environmental consequences of pipeline failures in Canada.

Full Description

In Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates inter-provincial oil and gas pipelines and maintains historical records that contain data on oil and gas pipeline accidents; these data include information about operators, the accidents’ cause, and the resulting consequences. New inter-provincial pipelines are being built in Canada to transport fuels, but no comprehensive statistical analysis of the risk to environmental receptors exists. This study assesses the quality and quantity of NEB pipeline failure data available in Canada with a focus on environmental consequences and investigates differences between Canada and a more thoroughly studied jurisdiction, the United States, in tracking accident data. The discrepancies in agencies’ jurisdiction and regulated mileage are analyzed, along with reporting criteria and initial recording year. The level of detail provided by the two agencies is compared, identifying deficiencies in data collection. The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) regulates 76% of pipelines in the United States, whereas the NEB only monitors 9% of pipelines in Canada. PHMSA provides four databases that include accidents from the 1980s for most pipelines and from 2011 for liquefied natural gas facilities; the NEB database includes accident data starting from 2008, which derive primarily from transmission pipelines. Information about environmental consequences is quite detailed in the US database, which reports 21 descriptive fields, whereas in Canada only two NEB database fields describe environmental outcomes. Moreover, dissimilarities in accident reporting criteria prevent the combination of data from the two agencies. Consequently, the NEB database does not allow for statistically robust and system wide analysis of the environmental consequences of pipeline failures in Canada. Furthermore, to calculate failure rates (annual number of accidents per kilometre of pipeline) for regulated pipelines, annual total mileage estimates are required. Mileage per year is provided by PHMSA for gas gathering, transmission, and distribution pipelines starting from 1984, and for hazardous liquid pipelines from 2004; the NEB provides annual mileage from 2010, a shorter period of record. The Canadian federal agencies are encouraged to improve accuracy and consistency in recording past accidents and in collecting pipeline data, with the goal of preventing and minimizing future pipeline failures.

Global Change Biology

Rates of Disturbance Vary by Data Resolution: Implications for Conservation Schedules Using the Alberta Boreal Forest as a Case Study

Petr E. Komers and Zoran Stanojevic

2013. Global Change Biology (2013), Volume 19(9): 2916-2928 doi: 10.1111/gcb.12266

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Investigations of biophysical changes on earth caused by anthropogenic disturbance provide governments with tools to generate sustainable development policy. Canada currently experiences one of the fastest rates of boreal forest disturbance in the world.

Full Description

Investigations of biophysical changes on earth caused by anthropogenic disturbance provide governments with tools to generate sustainable development policy. Canada currently experiences one of the fastest rates of boreal forest disturbance in the world. Plans to conserve the 330 000 km2 boreal forest in the province of Alberta exist but conservation targets and schedules must be aligned with rates of forest disturbance. We explore how disturbance rate, and the accuracy with which we detect it, may affect conservation success. We performed a change detection analysis from 1992 to 2008 using Landsat and SPOT satellite image data processing. Canada’s recovery strategy for boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) states that ≤35% of a caribou range can be either burned or within 500 m of a man-made feature for caribou to recover. Our analyses show that by 2008 78% of the boreal forest was disturbed and that, if the current rate continues, 100% would be disturbed by 2028. Alberta plans to set aside 22% for conservation in a region encompassing oil sands development to balance economic, environmental, and traditional indigenous land-use goals. Contrary to the federal caribou recovery strategy, provincial conservation plans do not consider wildfire a disturbance. Based on analyses used in the provincial plan, we apply a 250 m buffer around anthropogenic footprints. Landsat image analysis indicates that the yearly addition of disturbance is 714 km2 (0.8%). The higher resolution SPOT images show fine-scale disturbance indicating that actual disturbance was 1.28 times greater than detected by Landsat. If the SPOT image based disturbance rates continue, the 22% threshold may be exceeded within the next decade, up to 20 years earlier than indicated by Landsat-based analysis. Our results show that policies for sustainable development will likely fail if governments do not develop time frames that are grounded by accurate calculations of disturbance rates.

ISRN Ecology

Testing the Ideal Free Distribution Hypothesis: Moose Response to Changes in Habitat Amount

Abbie Stewart and Petr E. Komers

2012. ISRN Ecology, Volume 2012, 8 pp., http://www.isrn.com/journals/ecology/2012/945209/

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According to the ideal free distribution hypothesis, the density of organisms is expected to remain constant across a range of habitat availability, provided that organisms are ideal, selecting habitat patches that maximize resource access, and free, implying no constraints associated with patch choice.

Full Description

According to the ideal free distribution hypothesis, the density of organisms is expected to remain constant across a range of habitat availability, provided that organisms are ideal, selecting habitat patches that maximize resource access, and free, implying no constraints associated with patch choice. The influence of the amount of habitat on moose (Alces alces) pellet group density as an index of moose occurrence was assessed within the Foothills Natural Region, Alberta, Canada, using a binary patch-matrix approach. Fecal pellet density was compared across 45 sites representing a gradient in habitat amount. Pellet density in moose habitat increased in a linear or quadratic relationship with mean moose habitat patch size. Moose pellet density decreased faster than what would be expected from a decrease in habitat amount alone. This change in pellet group density with habitat amount may be because one or both of the assumptions of the ideal free distribution hypothesis were violated.

Cumulative Effects Management

Non-Linear Responses of Ecosystem Components to Provide Threshold Values for Cumulative Effects Management

Petr E. Komers

In: 2000. Cumulative Effects Management Conference in Calgary: Tools and Approaches, Ed. By A.J. Kennedy; Papers from a Symposium Held by the Alberta Society of Professional Biologist

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Environmental and regulatory Best Management Practices (BMP) are dynamic and ever evolving as practitioners generate new and improved means of assessing and predicting the environmental impact of heavy oil projects.

Full Description

Environmental and regulatory Best Management Practices (BMP) are dynamic and ever evolving as practitioners generate new and improved means of assessing and predicting the environmental impact of heavy oil projects. BMP for environmental and regulatory issues and assessments of impacts on the environment are largely carried out because of regulatory legislation. A broad range of topics of interest that fall within the potential areas of concern for environmental and regulatory BMP and disturbance activities associated with heavy oil operations are presented. For the purposes underlying this handbook, documents have been examined on the topics such as air quality, water resources, biodiversity, stake holder participation, and many others. Papers are presented on three of these topics, along with information as to why these papers may be of interest to those wishing to employ BMP in environmental and regulatory issues of concern.

The CHOA Handbook

Environmental and Regulatory Best Management Practices

Whidden, T. and Komers, P.E.

In: 2006. The CHOA Handbook, Published by: The Canadian Heavy Oil Association. ISBN 0-9695213-1-6; 720, 500 – 5th Ave. S.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2P 3L5. Printed in Canada 2006. Pp. 67-144

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Environmental and regulatory Best Management Practices (BMP) are dynamic and ever evolving as practitioners generate new and improved means of assessing and predicting the environmental impact of heavy oil projects.

Full Description

Environmental and regulatory Best Management Practices (BMP) are dynamic and ever evolving as practitioners generate new and improved means of assessing and predicting the environmental impact of heavy oil projects. BMP for environmental and regulatory issues and assessments of impacts on the environment are largely carried out because of regulatory legislation. A broad range of topics of interest that fall within the potential areas of concern for environmental and regulatory BMP and disturbance activities associated with heavy oil operations are presented. For the purposes underlying this handbook, documents have been examined on the topics such as air quality, water resources, biodiversity, stake holder participation, and many others. Papers are presented on three of these topics, along with information as to why these papers may be of interest to those wishing to employ BMP in environmental and regulatory issues of concern.

Ecoscience

Assessing Landscape Relationships for Habitat Generalists

Abbie Stewart, Petr E. Komers & Darren J. Bender

2010. Ecoscience, Volume 17 – Number 1 – 2010

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The importance of landscape heterogeneity for the abundance and distribution of wildlife is well recognized. General relationships have been developed to link landscape pattern to demographic processes…

Full Description

The importance of landscape heterogeneity for the abundance and distribution of wildlife is well recognized. General relationships have been developed to link landscape pattern to demographic processes, although these relations are best demonstrated for species with specialized habitat requirements and often in landscapes that can be generalized to a simple habitat-matrix structure. Habitat generalist may interact in more complex ways with a mosaic of landscape features. A novel method for quantifying the habitat relationship of generalist species using thematic vegetation maps was proposed by Brotons et al. (2005) and base of a theoretical model by Andrén, Delin, and Seiler(1997)…

IAIA

Participatory Management in the Canadian Oil Sands

Petr. E Komers; Abbie Stewart; Shannon Gavin; Sarah Hechtenthal; Troy Whidden; Zoran Stanojevic;

In: 2010. IAIA10 Conference Proceedings

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Large-scale developments in the Canadian Oil Sands Region conflict with Aboriginal land-use. To understand the urgency of concerns voiced by Aboriginal communities we measured the rate of land cover disturbance.

Full Description

Large-scale developments in the Canadian Oil Sands Region conflict with Aboriginal land-use. To understand the urgency of concerns voiced by Aboriginal communities we measured the rate of land cover disturbance. In a 30,000km2 area, almost half of the land that is used by Aboriginal communities is within 250m of an industrial feature. At the current rate of development, the remaining land 250m from an industrial feature will vanish by 2060. We reviewed the EIA process on its ability to plan for industrial impacts on Aboriginal land-use. Current scoping for EIAs does not allow for community participation in identifying environmental and social concerns. Community concerns are only addressed in EIAs that result in the proponent making commitments to find resolutions during follow-up phases. However, follow-up programs typically lack scientifically testable targets to measure the effectiveness of mitigating the impacts on Aboriginal land-use. Governments are now inviting Aboriginal communities to contribute to regional planning.

Biological Conservation

The Effect of Demographic Characteristics on the Success of Ungulate Re-Introductions

Petr E. Komers and G. Peder Curman

2000. Biological Conservation Volume 93: 187-193

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Given that small populations are susceptible to extinction and inbreeding, a primary goal of re-introductions should be to maximize the initial rate of increase of the re-introduced population.

Full Description

Given that small populations are susceptible to extinction and inbreeding, a primary goal of re-introductions should be to maximize the initial rate of increase of the re-introduced population. We investigated how the rate of increase of newly re-introduced populations of artiodactyl species was affected by population characteristics, such as their size, sex-, and age-structure. While selecting the data of past re-introductions for our analysis, we controlled for factors that are known to affect success. The growth rate r of the populations increased with the number of animals released, up to about a population size of 20, at which point an asymptote was reached. All larger populations grew at a median r=0.17, while several smaller populations declined. Small populations grew faster if they contained more mature individuals. Small, heavily female-biased populations were more variable in r than those of a more equal sex ratio. These female-biased populations also grew on average less well. Generally, populations of less then 20 were more variable in r than larger ones and both age and sex structure explained a significant portion of this variation.

Canadian Journal of Zoology

Do pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) perceive roads as a predation risk?

S.D. Gavin and P.E. Komers

2006.Canadian journal of Zoology, Volume 84:1775-1780

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The risk-disturbance hypothesis proposes that organisms respond to generalized threat stimuli; therefore, human disturbances that elicit these behaviours will cause individuals to behave similarly to avoiding a natural predator.

Full Description

The risk-disturbance hypothesis proposes that organisms respond to generalized threat stimuli; therefore, human disturbances that elicit these behaviours will cause individuals to behave similarly to avoiding a natural predator. Studies show pronghorn antelope, Antilocapra americana (Ord, 1815), have been influenced by human disturbances. We examined several intensities of human activity and distance from disturbances as indicators of risk perception in pronghorns. We investigated whether pronghorns exhibited risk-avoidance behaviour towards road traffic consistent with the risk-disturbance hypothesis by comparing vigilance and foraging behaviour observations across increasing traffic levels and proximity to roads. Pronghorns showed higher vigilance and lower foraging times along high traffic roads during the spring season compared with lower traffic levels, suggesting that risk perception is related to traffic level. Moreover, individuals within close proximity to roads regardless of traffic level exhibited higher vigilance levels, indicating that there is an overall risk perceived towards roads. Our results also suggest that individuals in herds with young are more risk averse than other social groupings and individuals in larger groups perceive less risk. We suggest that consequences of risk-avoidance behaviour should be reflected in land-use plans that address for road densities and traffic levels to better manage wildlife.

MIX 103.7

Dr. Petr Komers, Interviewed by News Director Wallis Snowdon [radio] Mix 103.7 Fort McMurray Matters

Audio1 , Audio2

2013. Radio Mix 103.7 Fort McMurray Matters

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A wood bison herd roaming the muskeg north of Fort McMurray could hold invaluable conservation clues, but local First Nations and wildlife researchers fear the Ronald Lake population will be wiped out before critical questions surrounding the health and genetics of the herd can be answered.

Full Description

A wood bison herd roaming the muskeg north of Fort McMurray could hold invaluable conservation clues, but local First Nations and wildlife researchers fear the Ronald Lake population will be wiped out before critical questions surrounding the health and genetics of the herd can be answered. The Ronald Lake herd is central in opposition to a Teck Resources winter drilling program, which faced regulatory hearings earlier this year. Dr. Petr Komers spoke on behalf of the Mikisew Cree and Athabasca Chipewyan First Nations during those proceedings. Mix News spoke with the wildlife researcher about his work on the dwindling animals, and asked him first, how viable are the populations in the Wood Buffalo region…. You’ve been listening to Wood Bison researcher, Dr. Petr Komers, about his field research on the roaming beasts. He says one of the few remaining populations in the Wood Buffalo region, the Ronald Lake bison herd, is at risk of being pushed out of its native habitat before critical questions surrounding its health and genetics are answered.”

Wildlife Poster

2010. IAIA10 The best poster award

Our publications in refereed and popular journals.

Ecology

Dhindsa, M.S., P.E. Komers and D.A. Boag. 1989. Nest Height of Black-Billed Magpies: Is it Determined by Human Disturbance or Habitat type? Can. J. Zool. 67: 228-232.

Dhindsa, M.S., P.E. Komers and D.A. Boag. 1989.The Effect of Familiarity with an Environment on the Dominance Relationships Between Juvenile and Adult Black-Billed MagpiesOrn. Scan. 20: 187-192.

Gavin, S. and P.E. Komers. (under review). The effects of road traffic on pronghorn habitat use. 

Gavin, S.D. and P.E. Komers. 2006.Do pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) perceive roads as a predation risk? Canadian Journal of Zoology 84(12): 1775-1780

Komers, P.E. 1997. Behavioral Plasticity in Variable Environments. Can. J. Zool. 75: 161‑169.

Komers, P.E. 1997. Property Rites. Natural History, March 106: 28-31.

Komers, P.E. and G.P. Curman. 2000. The Effect of Demographic Characteristics on the Success of Ungulate Re-introductions. Biol. Cons. 93: 187-193.

Komers, P.E. and P.N.M. Brotherton. 1997. Dung Pellets Used to Identify the Distribution and Density of Dik-DikAfr. J. Ecol. 35: 124-132.

Komers, P.E. and P.N.M. Brotherton. 1997. Female Space Use Is the Best Predictor of Monogamy in MammalsProc. R. Soc. B. 264: 1261-1270.

Komers, P.E., F. Messier and C.C. Gates. 1993. Group Structure in Wood Bison: Nutritional and Reproductive DeterminantsCan. J. Zool. 71: 1367-1371.

Stewart, A., and P.E. Komers. 2012. Testing the ideal free distribution hypothesis: Moose response to changes in habitat amount. ISRN Ecology 2012, 8 pp.

Behavior

Brotherton, P.N.M. & Komers, P.E. . 2003. Mate Guarding and the Evolution of Social Monogamy in Mammals. In Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and other Mammals., U. Reichard and C. Boesch eds., University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge. Pp. 42-58.

Dhindsa, M.S., D.A. Boag and P.E. Komers. 1989. Mate Choice in Black-Billed Magpies: The Role of Male Quality vs. Quality of Defended Resources. Orn. Scan. 20: 193-203.

Komers, P.E. 1989. Dominance Relationships Between Juvenile and Adult Black-Billed Magpies. Anim. Behav. 37: 256-265.

Komers, P.E. 1996. Conflicting Territory Use in Males and Females of a Monogamous Ungulate, the Kirk’s Dik-Dik. Ethology 102: 568-579.

Komers, P.E. 1996. Obligate Monogamy Without Paternal Care in Kirk’s Dik-Dik. Anim. Behav. 51: 131-140.

Komers, P.E. and D.A. Boag. 1988. The Reproductive Performance in Black-billed Magpies: Is it Related to Mate Choice? Can. J. Zool. 66: 1679-1684.

Komers, P.E. and E.J. Komers. 1992. Juvenile Male Magpies Dominate Adults Irrespective of Size Differences. Can. J. Zool. 70: 815-819.

Komers, P.E. and M.S. Dhindsa. 1989. Influence of Dominance on Mate Choice in Black-Billed Magpies: An Experimental Study. Anim. Behav. 37: 645-655.

Komers, P.E., B. Birgersson and K. Ekvall. 1999. Timing of Estrus Influenced by Male Age in Fallow Deer.Am. Nat. 153: 431-436.

Komers, P.E., C. Pélabon and D. Stenström. 1997. Age at First Reproduction in Male Fallow Deer: Age- Vs. Dominance-specific Behaviors. Behav. Ecol. 8: 456-462.

Komers, P.E., F. Messier and C.C. Gates. 1994. Plasticity of Reproductive Behavior in Wood Bison Bulls: On Risks and Opportunities. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 6: 481 495.

Komers, P.E., F. Messier and C.C. Gates. 1994. Plasticity of Reproductive Behavior in Wood Bison Bulls: When Subadults Are Given a Chance. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 6: 313 330.

Komers, P.E., F. Messier, P. Flood and C.C. Gates. 1994. Reproductive Behavior of Male Wood Bison Related to Female Progesterone Level. J. Mammal. 75: 757 765.

Komers, P.E., K. Roth and C.C. Gates. 1992. Search or Relax: The Case of Bachelor Wood Bison. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 195-203.

Komers, P.E., K. Roth and R. Zimmerli. 1992. Interpreting Social Behavior of Wood Bison Using Tail Postures. Z. Säugetierk 57: 343-350.

Pélabon, C. and P.E. Komers. 1997. Time-Budget Variations in Relation to Density-Dependent Social Interactions in Female and Yearling Male Fallow Deer During the Rut. Can. J. Zool. 75: 971-977.

Pélabon, C., P.E. Komers and J. Höglund. 1999. Do leks limit the frequency of aggressive encounters in fallow deer? Linking local male density and lek occurrence. Can. J. Zool. 77: 667-670.

Pélabon, C., P.E. Komers, B. Birgersson and K. Ekvall. 1999. Social Interactions of Yearling Male Fallow Deer During the Rut. Ethology 105: 247-258.

Biodiversity, GIS and Remote Sensing

Dickson, E. E. 2000. Habitat classification in the Kootenay Mountain Region of British Columbia: A comparison of remote sensing methods, unpublished Master Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Calgary.

Dickson, E. E. and M. Hall-Beyer. 2000. Merging spectral classes based on spatial association (Neighbouring Class Frequency) improves correspondence between spectral classes and air photo-mapped or ground mapped habitat classes in a mountainous area of southern British Columbia.Proceedings of the 22nd Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, August 21-25, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC.

Dickson, E. E., S. E. Franklin, and L. M. Moskal. 2000. Monitoring of forest biodiversity using remote sensing: Forest stand (high spatial resolution) protocol and examples. Alberta Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Program Technical Report No. 4, Part 2, July 2000.

Dickson, E. E., S. E. Franklin, and L. M. Moskal. 2000. Monitoring of forest biodiversity using remote sensing: Regional landscape (medium and low spatial resolution) protocol and examples. Alberta Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Program Technical Report No. 4, Part 1, April 2000.

Farr, D. R., S. E. Franklin, E. E. Dickson, G. Scrimgeour, S. Kendall, P. Lee, S. Hanus, N. N. Winchester, and C. C. Shank. 1999. Monitoring forest biodiversity in Alberta, program framework. Alberta Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Program Technical Report No. 3, Review Draft, March 1999.

Franklin, S. E., E. E. Dickson, D. R. Farr, M. J. Hansen and L. M. Moskal. 2000. Quantification of landscape change from satellite remote sensing. Forestry Chronicle 76:877-886.

Levy, R. M. and E. E. Dickson. 2001. GIS/remote sensing tourism destination management. In Managing Community Tourism Destinations in Southeast Asia: Principles and Practice. Saengsawang World Press Co., Ltd, BAIT, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 77-86.

Presutti, M. E., L. M. Moskal, E. E. Dickson, A. M. Lombardo, and S. E. Franklin. 1999. Forestry and agricultural land cover classification using RadarSAT and Landsat TM imagery in the Southeast Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Poster, 2nd International Symposium on Operationalization of Remote Sensing, 16-20 August 1999, ITC, Enschede, Netherlands.

Levy, R. M. and E. E. Dickson. 2006. GIS, Remote Sensing and Tourism Destination Management. InCommunity Destination Management in Developing Economies. The Haworth Press, Inc., Binghamton, NY.

Presutti, M. E., S. E. Franklin, L. M. Moskal, and E. E. Dickson. 2001. Supervised classification of multisource satellite image spectral and texture data for agricultural crop mapping. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 27 (6):679-684.

Stanojevicei, Z., P. Lee, and J. Gysbergs. 2006. Recent anthropogenic changes within the Boreal Plains Ecozone  of Saskatchewan and Manitoba,  Global Forest Watch Canada Report

Lee P., J. Gysbergs and  Z, Stanojevic, 2006. Canada’s landscape forest fragments: A First approximation, Global Forest Watch Canada Report

Stanojevicei, Z., P. Lee, and J. Gysbergs. 2006. Forest Landscape change analysis,  Global Forest Watch Canada Report

Lee P.,  Z, Stanojevic and  J. Gysbergs, 2004. Commercial Forest tenure of Canada,  Global Forest Watch Canada Report

Genetics

Brotherton, P.N.M., J.M. Pemberton, P.E. Komers and G. Malarky. 1997. Genetic Evidence of Monogamy in an Antelope, Kirk’s Dik-Dik (Madoqua kirkii).  Proc. R. Soc. B. 264: 675 681.

Bruneau, A., E. E. Dickson, and S. Knapp. 1995. Congruence of chloroplast DNA restriction site characters with morphology and isozyme data in Solanum sect. Lasiocarpa. Canadian J. Botany 73:1151-1167.

Dickson, E. E. 1993. Native American Apples. The World & I. 9:214-219.

Dickson, E. E. 1993. North American Malus section Chloromeles. Malus 2:2-4.

Dickson, E. E. and P. L. Forsline. 1994. Collection of wild apple in Middle Asia. Malus 8:11-14.

Dickson, E. E., K. Aruganathan, S. Kresovich, and J. J. Doyle. 1992. Nuclear DNA content variation within the Rosaceae. Am. J. Bot. 79(9):1081-1086.

Dickson, E. E., S. Kresovich, and N. F. Weeden. 1990. Isozymes in North American Malus (Rosaceae): Hybridization and species differentiation. Syst. Bot. 1991. 16(2):363-375.

Doyle, J. J. and E. E. Dickson. 1987. Preservation of plant samples for DNA restriction endonuclease analysis. Taxon 36(4):715-722.

Doyle, J. J., J. L. Doyle, J. A. Ballenger, E. E. Dickson, T. Kajita, and H. Ohashi. 1997. A phylogeny of the chloroplast gene RBCL in the Leguminosae: Taxonomic correlations and insights into the evolution of nodulation. American Journal of Botany 84 (4): 541-554.

Philip L. Forsline, H.S. Aldwinckle, E.E. Dickson, J. J. Luby, and S.C. Hokanson. 2003. Collection, Maintenance, Characterization and Utilization of Wild Apples of Central Asia. Horticultural Reviews, Vol 29: 1- 61.

Phipps, J. B., N. F. Weeden and E. E. Dickson. 1990. Isozyme evidence for the naturalness of Mespilus L. (Rosaceae, subfamily Maloideae). Syst. Bot. 1991. 16(3):546-552.

Whalen, M. D. and E. E. Caruso (Dickson). 1983. Phylogeny in Solanum sect. Lasiocarpa (Solanaceae): Congruence of morphological and molecular data. Syst. Bot. 8(4): 369-380.

Zhang, X-H., E. E. Dickson, C. C. Chinnappa. 1995. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding Caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase of Stellaria longipes (Caryophyllaceae). Plant Physiology 108: